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Cotton

Cotton is the most widely used natural fibre in the world and is essential for the manufacture of a wide variety of clothing and home products. The cotton plant provides seed for animal feed, while lint is converted into fibre. According to CottonConnect, cotton accounts for almost 40% of global textile production. It provides income for more than 250m people worldwide and employs 7% of all labour in developing countries. 

However, unless cotton is grown sustainably it leaves a significant environmental and social footprint. For example, it can take between 10,000 and 20,000 litres of water to produce 1kg cotton (depending on where it’s grown). Its cultivation can also be highly chemical intensive where the unsafe use of chemicals has the potential to cause severe health impacts on workers in the field and on surrounding ecosystems. While a number of initiatives have been developed to improve the sustainability of cotton production – total production of more sustainable cotton is still only estimated at about 15% of global production.  

Cotton is a very important raw material for M&S. Over the past decade we have been working to develop a practical approach to sourcing cotton more sustainably in order to help secure our access to this raw material in years to come as well as improving the lives of people and communities.

Commitments and targets
We want to lead our sector in sustainable consumption and production, offering our customers the good value, high quality products and they expect from M&S, while respecting planetary boundaries and the need for social equity.

We’ve been progressively sourcing cotton from more sustainable sources since 2007. We want to accelerate our efforts and will now start working towards a revised aim of sourcing 100% of our cotton from more sustainable sources by April 2019. By 2025, we aim to have increased the proportion of Fairtrade, organic and recycled sources to 25%. 

Approach
Cotton is very important to M&S. Within our Clothing & Home business it is the largest raw material and on average we use around 50,000 tonnes of lint cotton each year. Our cotton fibre mainly comes from India, China, Pakistan, Turkey, Brazil, USA, Africa and Australia and our supply chain is complex. We don’t own farms or factories and don’t purchase raw materials directly. Most of the raw materials that go into our products are sourced in a global market and cotton is no exception. As a result, traceability is a real challenge, so it is hard for us to fully understand our supply chain beyond our direct supplier. This is compounded by the fact that we use less than 0.25% of the world’s annual production of cotton so our leverage or influence in the sector is minimal. Nonetheless we expect all parties in our supply chains to be progressively working towards sourcing more sustainable cotton. 

We have a proud history of sourcing cotton from more sustainable sources. We work with a wide range of multi-stakeholder and industry platforms to ensure our knowledge remains up to date in this rapidly evolving landscape. 

Over the last few years we have been evolving our approach to one which is both practical and reflects our size and influence in this industry. 

Our approach to sourcing more sustainable cotton is as follows:

Establishing and maintaining clear minimum sourcing standards

Sourcing More Sustainable Cotton
We’ve identified more sustainable sources of cotton as those which have been cultivated in such a way that meets at least one of following principles:

  • Reducing water use;
  • Reducing the dependency on pesticides and synthetic fertilisers;
  • Improving social conditions for farmers; and
  • Supporting the economic sustainability of farmers
We have committed to source 100% of the cotton we use in M&S products from more sustainable sources by April 2019. We define more sustainable sources as meeting any of the following standards:

Better Cotton Initiative The Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) aims to make global cotton production better for the people who produce it, better for the environment it grows in and better for the sector’s future. BCI takes a mass-balance approach and end product ultimately may not physically contain BCI cotton. A minimum of 50% of the product composition is required for Plan A Product Attribute purposes.
Fairtrade Certified Fairtrade is about better prices, decent working conditions, local sustainability and fair terms of trade for farmers and workers in the developing world. Premiums paid go to a communal fund for workers and farmers to use for the benefit of their farms and communities. Suppliers must follow the full chain of custody requirements for Fairtrade certification, including audits where necessary. 
Organic Cotton Organic cotton is grown without the use of pesticides or synthetic fertilisers. Any product claiming organic status must meet our Organic Fibre Policy (e.g. meet legal standards for organic fibres and supported by correct documentation and certificates). A minimum of 50% of the product composition is required for Plan A Product Attribute purposes. 
Recycled Cotton Using reused or recycled cotton in lieu of virgin fibre can improve the sustainability performance of the product. We aspire to use post-consumer waste (e.g. used garments) but post industrial waste (mill waste and noils) are acceptable as an alternative.  A minimum of 25% of the product composition which meets our Recycled Textiles Policy (e.g. supported by certification to a recognised recycling standard – namely the Global Recycled Standard (GRS) or SCS Recycled Content Standard) is required for Plan A Product Attribute purposes.  
These requirements are set out in our Cotton Sourcing Policy

In 2016/17, 49% of the cotton sourced by suppliers (by volume) came from more sustainable sources. This amounts to 23,000 metric tonnes of more sustainable cotton lint. Some 95% of this figure was met by sourcing BCI cotton, with the remainder made up of organic, recycled cotton or Fairtrade. 

Products which meet any of the above criteria will be awarded a Plan A Product Attribute – an M&S credential that indicates a product is made in a way that is less damaging to society or the environment than conventional production methods. Find out more about our approach to product sustainability

Our suppliers are also required to meet the requirements set out in our Global Sourcing Principles. They are required to enforce these standards through their supply chain. Find out more about our approach to supplier management.

Prohibited Countries – Uzbekistan & Turkmenistan
There are ongoing concerns about the use of government backed forced labour and child labour during the cotton-picking season in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. As a result, since 2008 we have not permitted any cotton yarns, fibres or fabrics that have originated in Uzbekistan to be used in the manufacture of any M&S product. In February 2016, we extended this ban to apply to Turkmenistan as well. 

Suppliers must declare the cotton country of origin to us. If product is subsequently found to contain cotton originating from Turkmenistan or Uzbekistan we reserve the right to cancel that order or return items to the supplier at their expense. These requirements are set out in our Cotton Sourcing Policy

Supply Chain Tracking
Due to the nature of the global trading system it is incredibly difficult to trace a batch of cotton from farm to factory to retailer. One of the issues, for example, is the lack of standardisation as information is exchanged between various links in the supply chain.

We are committed to achieving greater supply chain transparency and traceability of cotton used within our clothing and home supply chain. We are working closely with our supply chain to understand how we can improve our level of traceability over the next few years. 

Supporting market transformation through working with industry partners, standard setting organisations and other stakeholders

WWF Partnership
M&S has worked with WWF since 2004, initially on sustainable fishing and forestry initiatives, before launching our first partnership in 2007 to support Plan A. Our current three-year partnership began in 2014 and focuses on fishing, cotton and water. 

WWF is helping us move towards our goal of sourcing 100% of cotton from sustainable sources by 2019.  
We have been working with WWF in a wider context on the issue of water usage, conducting a hydrology risk study to assess water shortage risks for the agricultural sector including cotton production that will also help to formulate a tool to prepare for such risks. 

Since 2009, we’ve been working with WWF on sustainable cotton in India which is now the second largest producer of cotton in the world (after China). In the 2010 cotton season, the project produced its first harvest of Better Cotton from cotton production areas of Warangal and Karimnagar districts (see below). 

In an effort to deepen understanding of cotton farming in the M&S supply chain, we published a report with WWF in 2013 on ‘Cutting Cotton Carbon Emissions’. This identified fertilisers as the major factor of greenhouse gas emissions in cotton cultivation and provided additional evidence to support better management practices over conventional cotton production systems. 

In addition, insights gained into more sustainable farming practices have seen M&S invest in the development of the Cool Farm tool, which enables growers and retailers to measure the potential for agricultural practices to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Given the success of the tool, WWF India has now adopted it and is applying the methodology to help substantially reduce the greenhouse gas impact of Indian agriculture. 

Better Cotton Initiative
The Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) is about helping products adopt better management practices in growing cotton. The BCI is a not-for-profit organisation stewarding the global standards for Better Cotton, and bringing together cotton's complex supply chain, from the farmers to the retailers. 

BCI is a capacity building initiative which encourages the adoption of better management practices in cotton cultivation to achieve measurable reductions in key environmental impacts, while improving social and economic benefits for cotton farmers, small and large, worldwide. It is primarily focused on the following:

  • Demonstrating the inherent benefits of Better Cotton production, particularly the financial profitability for farmers;
  • Reducing the impact of water and pesticide use on human and environmental health;
  • Improving soil health and biodiversity;
  • Promoting decent working conditions for farming communities and cotton farm workers;
  • Facilitating global knowledge exchange on more sustainable cotton production; and
  • Increasing the traceability along the cotton supply chain.
M&S became a Pioneer Member of the BCI in 2009. We also currently hold one of the three seats on the BCI Council reserved for retail and brand member organisations. We are also currently Vice-Chair of the Council. The Council is an elected board whose role it is to ensure that BCI has a clear strategic direction and adequate policy to successfully fulfil its mission. 

We also sit on the two multi-stakeholder committees which support the BCI Council and oversight of the BCI’s Growth & Innovation Fund and annual investment programme: 

  • Buyer and Investor Committee – charged with linking supply and demand and proposing new strategic initiatives; and
  • Field Innovation and Impact Committee – tasked with running the annual application process and seeking out new approaches to more effective and efficient implementation.
M&S is committed to BCI and the majority of our more sustainable cotton meets BCI standards (see above). 

In addition to directly working with WWF in the Warangal and Karimnagar districts of India (see below), we indirectly fund projects in many other countries as part of the Growth and Innovation Fund. 

Cotton 2040
We are part of the Cotton 2040 initiative which is a global coalition of international retailers, producers, industry initiatives and cotton standards created to overcome the barriers to the uptake of sustainable cotton as a mainstream commodity.

Cotton 2040 is led by Forum for the Future with support from the C&A Foundation. 

Through research and close consultation with cotton stakeholders across the industry between 2015 and 2016, the following priority areas for action have been identified:
 
  1. Building demand for more sustainable cotton: enabling an increased demand for sustainable cotton within the fashion and apparel industry.
  2. Closing the loop on cotton: scaling up cotton recycling and circularity.
  3. Traceability: building greater visibility and transparency throughout the cotton value chain and across standards.
  4. Upskilling for resilience: creating a cross-industry forum to build resilience among smallholder cotton farmers in a changing world.
Over the next 2 to 3 years, working groups will be developing best practice in workstreams across these areas, to share with the wider industry.

We’re members of the first working group: ‘Building demand for sustainable cotton’ which was launched in November 2016 with the aim of increasing uptake of sustainable cotton from the industry to drive production from 13% to beyond 30% from 2020.


Find out more about Cotton 2040

Textile Exchange
The Textile Exchange is a global non-profit organisation which aims to make the textile industry more sustainable. They have developed several standards for the industry to support specific claims, such as on organic and recycled content.  

M&S has a long-standing relationship with Textile Exchange having become a member in 2004.

Supporting programmes which enhance the lives of people and communities

Better Cotton in India
WWF and M&S started working on sustainable cotton in India in 2009, supporting farmers in Warangal and Karimnagar districts to develop ways of producing cotton that use less water and fewer chemicals. In the 2010 cotton season, the project produced its first harvest of Better Cotton.

The project is supported by a number of local partners such as MARI (a leading NGO in India), that are helping to establish and strengthen farmer cooperatives and KVK (the Indian Council of Agricultural Research), the science and research centre who provide education and support to farmers to help improve their crop management. And of course all the field facilitators, cooperatives and the farmers themselves without whom the project would not be possible. 

The project is moving towards final exit phase in 2017 and the overall goal is for it to become self-sustaining. This will ensure all farmers involved receive the support they need from national cooperatives to establish farmer federations that will partner directly with the BCI.

As of 2015/16, 20,241 farmers are now certified as BCI Farmers, with net incomes approximately 110% higher than conventional farmers, and around 20% less commercial fertiliser and 15% less water used. 


Together with WWF we’ve helped create an exemplar model of Better Cotton production in collaboration with an expert network of partners which has the potential to be scaled up. Find out more about our Global Community Programme.

A short film about the WWF and M&S Better Cotton Project can be viewed below:


M&S and Unicef Upcycled Cotton Tote Bag
Since 2011, we’ve been working in partnership with Unicef UK to transform the lives of children in danger around the world. In October 2015, we teamed up to create a tote bag, made from upcycled cotton linen and designed by legendary designer Barbara Hulanicki. 

These have been created exclusively for M&S to raise funds for Unicef UK. We worked exclusively with one of our suppliers, London Linen, to repurpose fabric reclaimed from hotel and restaurant table linens to make the bags – our first ever upcycled product. All profits from the bag go towards the vital work of Unicef UK's Children in Danger campaign which aims to keep children safe around the world.

The bag is available in select M&S stores and is also available online – through sales of this bag we hope to be able to reach even more children worldwide. The bag retails at £4 and for every bag sold, £1 will go to supporting their vital work to help give children worldwide the chance of a happier, healthier and brighter future.

Working with others
Listening, learning, responding and working in partnership is an important part of how we do business. 

We are working with a number of industry and civil society organisations to tackle many of the challenges faced in the cotton sector. Outlined in more detail above, these include WWF, the Better Cotton Initiative (BCI), Forum for the Future (Cotton 2040) and Textile Exchange. We’re also working in partnership with WWF to support farmers in India to develop ways of producing Better Cotton and through our upcycled cotton bags we are raising funds for Unicef UK to help transform the lives of children in danger around the world. 

Key documents