|C-100 Factory Energy Reduction Programme|
Manufacture of clothing (final finishing and assembly) accounts for a relatively small part of the carbon footprint of clothing but tackling greenhouse gas emissions across hundreds of factories will make a positive difference.
We know from experience that there are three key improvements clothing factories can make to help reduce their carbon footprints:
As a result in 2010 we made a commitment to require our top 100 clothing factories to take action across these three areas to reduce their energy usage by an estimated 10% by 2015. We call this the C-100 Factory Energy Reduction Programme.
We’ve developed a range of tools to support factories in the C-100 programme. This includes guidance notes on efficient factory lighting, improved insulation and temperature controls.
As a first, step we recommend factories commission an energy audit to establish a baseline. The audit should be performed by either a third party M&S approved auditor or by a competent employee of the factory. This should done with relevant sub-metering to identify all key areas where energy usage needs to be assessed, and the potential for its reduction and control identified.
An energy reduction plan should be produced showing an action plan, estimated savings in energy (kWh and costs at current rates) and payback times for recommended investments in equipment or changes to factory operations.
We have developed a C-100 Self-Assessment tool for factories to use with supporting Grading Guide. Factories scoring 30 and above are classed as a C-100 factory once validated by one of our experts. Those scoring above 41 are encouraged to upgrade to the full Eco Factory Programme (see below).
By March 2015, 102 of our clothing factories had adopted energy efficiency best practices on lighting, insulation and temperature control. These were factories that featured in a rolling top 100 between 2011 and March 2015.
Having achieved our target we’re now requiring our top 100 clothing factories to reduce their energy usage by an estimated 10% by 2020. As a result, we’ve adopted 2015 as our new starting point. For 2016/17, 67 of our rolling top 100 clothing factories have met our requirements.
|Eco Factory Programme|
Launched in 2011, ‘Eco Factory’ status is similar to the C-100 Factory Energy Reduction Programme however measures are taken on energy efficiency, renewable energy, water and waste as well as more extensive measures on lighting, insulation and temperature control. The factory should adhere to our minimum standards, have good environmental management. We also encourage factories to consider third party certification, such as the LEED scheme, WWF Low Carbon Manufacturing Programme, ISO 14001, or other schemes approved at M&S’ discretion.
The starting point for many factories is achieving C-100 status. However, the Eco Factory Programme is open to all clothing and home factories.
We have developed an Eco Factory Self-Assessment tool for factories to use with supporting Grading Guide. Factories need to achieve scores of over 80% to achieve M&S ‘Eco Factory’ status. Third party certification is only scored if relevant and failure to comply with our minimum standards (e.g. Global Sourcing Principles) results in an automatic failure.
Factories send their completed self-assessments to the M&S regional offices teams for their review who then organise for a site visit to confirm the assessment. If the regional office agrees that the factory has achieved the necessary scores they will be granted ‘Eco Factory’ status. If factories do not pass the assessment an action plan is developed and a follow-up assessment is scheduled for a later date.
As of the end of December 2017 we had 180 factories which had achieved M&S Eco Factory status producing around 40% of total products sold. An Eco Factory will typically reduce their energy by 20-40%. A small number of factories have also achieved both Eco Factory and Ethical Excellence status (see below).
All M&S products produced in an approved Eco Factory are eligible for a Plan A product attribute. To maintain the attribute the factory’s status is reviewed every 3-6 months.
|Health & Safety||Demonstration of health and safety initiatives beyond audit requirements|
|WorkingConditions||Evidence of World Class Working Conditions and verification of conditions through existence of a worker survey|
|Child Labour and Young Workers||Existence of clear child labour policy and procedures for young workers|
|Living Wages||Demonstration and verification that all workers are paid above the legal minimum wage and towards living wage figures (where they exist)|
|Working Hours||Procedures and policies exist to ensure correct working hours are done and overtime is within legal limits|
|Management Systems||Demonstration that the factory employs outstanding HR and management systems|
|Freedom of Association||Existence of a method of Freedom of Association must be in place in the factory from a fully operational workers committee, to a union or other parallel means (e.g. Collective Bargaining Agreement)|
|Employment Conditions||Existence of policies ensuring Freedom of Association covering regular labour, temporary or contract workers|
|Discrimination||Demonstration of policies of procedures which ensure no discrimination in any area of employment|
|Discipline & Grievance Procedures||Existence of policies in place covering areas of discipline and fully operational grievance procedure in place|
|Training||Demonstrate that effective training programmes are in place for all levels of workers and management|